X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF technology) is a powerful quantitative and qualitative analytical tool for elemental analysis of materials. It is ideally suited to the measurement of film thickness and composition, determination of elemental concentration by weight of solids and solutions, and identification of specific and trace elements in complex sample matrices.
Electron-probe X-ray fluorescence (EP-XRF) analysis has been widely used in scanning electron microscopy instrumentation for elemental analysis of specimens. In the SEM, the surface of a solid sample is excited with a highly-focused energetic beam of electrons which induces X-ray fluorescence from the elements within the sample.
X-ray diffraction relies on the dual wave/particle nature of X-rays to obtain information about the structure of crystalline materials. A primary use of the technique is the identification and characterization of compounds based on their diffraction pattern.